1071
74
A Dynamic Model of the Cardiac Ventricular Action Potential I. Simulations of Ionic Currents and Concentration Changes
1096
The University of Auckland, Auckland Bioengineering Institute
The kinetics of the d gate.
Calculation of the exchanger current.
The closing rate for the m gate.
The time-dependent activation gate for the time-dependent potassium
current - the X gate.
Calculation of the channel conductance.
The closing rate for the K1 gate.
Lloyd
May
Catherine
The voltage-dependent activation gate for the fast sodium channel -
the m gate.
Fixed maths.
Fixed maths: alpha_J_calculation in fast_sodium_current_j_gate, beta_K1_calculation in time_independent_potassium_current_K1_gate, and i_NaK_calculation in sodium_potassium_pump.
Calculation of the channel current.
7514509
1994-06-01
Calculation of the exchanger current.
The potassium component of the channel's current.
The closing rate for the h gate.
The opening rate for the X gate.
Calculation of the current.
Mammalia
The Luo-Rudy II Model of Mammalian Ventricular Cardiac Action
Potentials, 1994
Ventricular Myocyte
The background sodium current.
Catherine
May
Lloyd
This is the CellML description of Luo and Rudy's mathematical model of the mammalian cardiac ventricular action potential. It is a significant development on their original 1991 model. While this version of the model qualitatively compares well to the LR II paper for the action potential, the intracellular calcium dynamics have not been included correctly - namely there is no calcium-induced calcium-release (CICR) process in this version of the model. The original version of the model simulates CICR via a mechanism whereby CICR is induced if and only if the calcium accumulated in the cell in the 2 ms following (dV/dt)max exceeds a given threshold. This sort of process is a bit tricky to include in the CellML (or at least in a way that will work with the CellML abilitites of CMISS) so has been left out for now.
ventricular myocyte
cardiac
electrophysiology
Catherine
May
Lloyd
The calcium component of the total L-type channel current.
1071
1096
A Dynamic Model of the Cardiac Ventricular Action Potential I. Simulations of Ionic Currents and Concentration Changes
74
The kinetics of the fCa gate.
The kinetics of the X gate.
The kinetics of for the j gate.
Rudy
Yoram
The closing rate of the f gate.
The reversal potential for the channel.
The University of Auckland, Auckland Bioengineering Institute
A non-specific calcium activated channel - assumed impermeable to
calcium ions but permeable to sodium and potassium ions.
The total current through the channel.
The time-independent inactivation gate for the time-dependent
potassium current - the Xi gate.
Catherine Lloyd
The kinetics of the m gate.
Catherine Lloyd
Calculation of the release channel conductance. This is incorrect as
there is no CICR induced via the accumulation of calcium in the
cytosol in the period following max(dV/dt)
James Lawson
The time-independent potassium repolarisation current.
This model contains a delay element in its mathematical description of CICR. Discrete delay elements can not yet be represented in CellML (as of CellML version 1.1) as as such, this model is non-functional.
May
Catherine
Lloyd
The change in intracellular sodium concentration.
The calcium pump current.
The opening rate of the d gate.
c.lloyd@auckland.ac.nz
The total current of the L-type channel current.
The kinetics of the h gate.
The change in calcium concentration in the junctional sarcoplasmic
reticulum.
Calculation of the current.
The maximum calcium component of the total L-type channel current.
The maximum sodium component of the channel's current.
We need to use dV/dt in the calulation of calcium-induced
calcium-release, so we make it accessible here.
Calculation of the fast sodium current.
7514509
Ching-hsing
Luo
The reversal potential for the channel.
The potassium current active at plateau potentials.
The sodium/potassium exchanger current which extrudes three sodium
ions from the cell in exchange for two potassium ions entering the
cell.
The sodium component of the channel's current.
This is the CellML description of Luo and Rudy's mathematical model of the mammalian cardiac ventricular action potential. It is a significant development on their original 1991 model. While this version of the model qualitatively compares well to the LR II paper for the action potential, the intracellular calcium dynamics have not been included correctly - namely there is no calcium-induced calcium-release (CICR) process in this version of the model. The original version of the model simulates CICR via a mechanism whereby CICR is induced if and only if the calcium accumulated in the cell in the 2 ms following (dV/dt)max exceeds a given threshold. This sort of process is a bit tricky to include in the CellML (or at least in a way that will work with the CellML abilitites of CMISS) so has been left out for now.
Assign the rate of change of potential for the differential
equation.
Calculation of the current.
Luo
Ching-hsing
The voltage-dependent inactivation gate for the L-type calcium
channel - the f gate.
The University of Auckland
Auckland Bioengineering Institute
The maximum potassium component of the channel's current.
The reversal potential of the channel.
Circulation Research
The main component for the model, contains all ionic currents and
defines the transmembrane potential.
The various calcium fluxes into and from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
The opening rate for the K1 gate.
This is a dummy equation that we simply use to make grabbing the
value in CMISS much easier.
The maximum potassium component of the total L-type channel current.
The fast sodium current is primarily responsible for the upstroke of
the action potential.
The kinetics of the f gate.
keyword
The channel reversal potential.
Calculation of the channel reversal potential.
The closing rate of the d gate.
The gating kinetics for the channel.
The opening rate for the m gate.
The release flux from the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum into the
cytosol.
The steady-state kinetics of the K1 gate.
The time-dependent potassium reploarisation current.
The voltage-dependent inactivation gate for the fast sodium channel -
the h gate.
c.lloyd@auckland.ac.nz
The voltage-dependent activation gate for the L-type calcium
channel - the d gate.
A calcium pump for removal of calcium from the cytosol to the
extracellular space.
The reversal potential for the channel.
The calcium-dependent inactivation gate for the L-type calcium
channel - the fCa gate.
Component grouping together the differential equations for the
various ionic concentrations that the model tracks.
1994-06-01
The opening rate for the j gate.
Calcium leak flux from the network sarcoplasmic reticulum into the
cytosol.
The closing rate for the j gate.
The sodium component of the total L-type channel current.
Yoram
Rudy
The change in intracellular calcium concentration.
The change in intracellular potassium concentration.
The uptake flux into the sarcoplasmic reticulum from the cytosol.
2002-03-28
Calculation of reversal potential for the fast sodium channel.
The opening rate of the f gate.
Translocation flux from the network to the junctional sarcoplasmic
reticulum.
2002-03-28T00:00:00+00:00
The closing rate for the X gate.
Circulation Research
2003-07-30
The University of Auckland
Auckland Bioengineering Institute
The opening rate for the h gate.
2003-06-05
The kinetics of the Xi gate.
The conductance for the channel.
The sodium-calcium exchanger current, exchanges three sodium ions
for one calcium ion.
The change in calcium concentration in the network sarcoplasmic
reticulum.
Calculation of the current.
The potassium component of the total L-type channel current.
The background calcium current.
The maximum sodium component of the total L-type channel current.
The voltage-dependent slow inactivation gate for the fast sodium
channel - the j gate.
The gating variable for the time-independent potassium current - the K1 gate.
The L-type calcium channel. Primarily a calcium specific channel,
but with small potassium and sodium components, activated at plateau
potentials.